d.school, the Stanford's institute of design, has published a 47-page paper called "Bootcamp Bootleg" that gives overview of different design methods and how they can be used in practice. Each method is explained in short, providing enough detail to evoke interest, but not too much to be distracting. It discusses methods like empathy maps, journey maps, stoking, brainstorming, bodystorming, storytelling, prototyping, why-how laddering, point-of-view madlibs and many others.
The publication has a lot of hidden gems, even if that might not seem so initially. It can give hints: when it might be good to pursue ideas and when not; how to test ideas quickly and on the cheap; when to apply constraints to an idea or explore its limits; how to better engage teams through different kinds of games. It tries to give a framework that is of wider use without necessarily being prescriptive. The methods themselves are open to the public, and everyone can propose their own for inclusion.
It's a useful resource for every designer, who is trying to understand the people he/she is designing for. Here I would like to thank the Stanford team for making it freely available to everyone.