Finding the inventors of selected inventions

Source: Wikipedia

#include <iostream> #include <map> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { map<string, string> inventor_inventions = { {"Vitaly Abalakov", "camming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor"}, {"Ernst Karl Abbe", "Condenser (microscope), apochromatic lens, refractometer"}, {"Hovannes Adamian", "tricolor principle of the color television"}, {"Samuel W. Alderson", "Crash test dummy"}, {"Alexandre Alexeieff", "Pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)"}, {"Rostislav Alexeyev", "Ekranoplan"}, {"Randi Altschul", "Disposable cellphone"}, {"Bruce Ames", "Ames test (Cell biology)"}, {"Giovanni Battista Amici", "Dipleidoscope, Amici prism"}, {"Mary Anderson", "windshield wiper blade"}, {"Momofuku Ando", "Instant noodles"}, {"Hal Anger", "a.o. Well counter (radioactivity measurements), gamma camera"}, {"Anders Knutsson Ångström", "Pyranometer"}, {"Ottomar Anschütz", "single-curtain focal-plane shutter, electrotachyscope"}, {"Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe", "Gyrocompass"}, {"Virginia Apgar", "Apgar score (for newborn babies)"}, {"Nicolas Appert", "canning (food preservation) using glass bottles, see also Peter Durand"}, {"Archimedes", "Archimedes' screw"}, {"Guido of Arezzo", "Guidonian hand, musical notation, see also staff (music)"}, {"Ami Argand", "Argand lamp"}, {"William George Armstrong", "hydraulic accumulator"}, {"Neil Arnott", "waterbed"}, {"Joseph Aspdin", "Portland cement"}, {"John Vincent Atanasoff", "digital computer"}, {"Charles Babbage", "Analytical engine (semi-automatic)"}, {"Tabitha Babbit", "Saw mill circular saw"}, {"Victor Babeș", "Babesia, the founder of serum therapy"}, {"Leo Baekeland", "Velox photographic paper and Bakelite"}, {"Ralph H. Baer", "video game console"}, {"Adolf von Baeyer", "a.o. Fluorescein, synthetic Indigo dye, Phenolphthalein"}, {"John Logie Baird", "an electromechanical television, electronic color television"}, {"Abi Bakr of Isfahan", "mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar"}, {"George Ballas", "String trimmer"}, {"Vladimir Baranov-Rossine", "Optophonic Piano"}, {"John Barber", "gas turbine"}, {"John Bardeen", "co-inventor of the transistor"}, {"Vladimir Barmin", "first rocket launch complex (spaceport)"}, {"Anthony R. Barringer", "INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system"}, {"Earl W. Bascom", "rodeo bucking chute (1916 and 1919), rodeo bronc saddle (1922), rodeo bareback rigging (1924), rodeo riding chaps (1926)"}, {"Nikolay Basov", "co-inventor of laser and maser"}, {"Émile Baudot", "Baudot code"}, {"Eugen Baumann", "PVC"}, {"Trevor Baylis", "a wind-up radio"}, {"Maria Beasley", "barrel-hooping machine, improved life raft"}, {"Francis Beaufort", "Beaufort scale, Beaufort cipher"}, {"Arnold O. Beckman", "electric pH meter"}, {"Vladimir Bekhterev", "Bekhterev's Mixture"}, {"Josip Belušić", "electric speedometer"}, {"Alexander Graham Bell", "telephone"}, {"Nikolay Benardos", "arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)"}, {"Ruth R. Benerito", "a.o. Permanent press (no-iron clothing)"}, {"Miriam Benjamin", "Gong and signal chair (adopted by House of Representatives and precursor to flight attendant signal system)"}, {"William R. Bennett Jr.", "Gas laser (Helium-Neon)"}, {"Melitta Bentz", "paper Coffee filter"}, {"Karl Benz", "the petrol-powered automobile"}, {"Hans Berger", "first human EEG and its development"}, {"Friedrich Bergius", "Bergius process (synthetic fuel from coal)"}, {"Emile Berliner", "the disc record gramophone"}, {"Tim Berners-Lee", "with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web"}, {"Marcellin Berthelot", "Berthelot's reagent (chemistry)"}, {"Max Bielschowsky", "Bielschowsky stain (histology)"}, {"Alfred Binet", "with his student Théodore Simon (1872–1961), first practical Intelligence test"}, {"Lucio Bini", "Electroconvulsive therapy"}, {"Gerd Binnig", "Atomic force microscope and Scanning tunneling microscope"}, {"Clarence Birdseye", "Flash freezing"}, {"László Bíró", "Ballpoint pen"}, {"Thor Bjørklund", "Cheese slicer"}, {"J. Stuart Blackton", "Stop-motion film"}, {"Otto Blathy", "co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator"}, {"John Blenkinsop", "Blenkinsop rack railway system"}, {"Charles K. Bliss", "Blissymbols"}, {"Katharine B. Blodgett", "nonreflective glass"}, {"Alan Blumlein", "stereo"}, {"David Boggs", "Ethernet"}, {"Nils Bohlin", "the three-point seat belt"}, {"Charlie Booth", "Starting blocks"}, {"Sam Born", "lollipop-making machine"}, {"Jagdish Chandra Bose", "Crescograph"}, {"Matthew Piers Watt Boulton", "aileron"}, {"Seth Boyden", "nail-making machine"}, {"Herbert Boyer", "created first Genetically modified organism"}, {"Willard Boyle", "Charge-coupled device (CCD)"}, {"Hugh Bradner", "Wetsuit"}, {"Louis Braille", "Braille writing system, Braille musical notation"}, {"Jacques E. Brandenberger", "Cellophane"}, {"Édouard Branly", "Coherer"}, {"Charles F. Brannock", "Brannock Device (shoe size)"}, {"Walter Houser Brattain", "co-inventor of the transistor"}, {"Karl Ferdinand Braun", "cathode-ray tube oscilloscope"}, {"Stanislav Brebera", "Semtex explosive"}, {"David Brewster", "Kaleidoscope"}, {"Rachel Fuller Brown", "Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibiotic"}, {"William C. Brown", "Crossed-field amplifier"}, {"Marie Van Brittan Brown", "home security system"}, {"Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn", "Taximeter"}, {"Nikolay Brusentsov", "ternary computer (Setun)"}, {"Dudley Allen Buck", "a.o. Cryotron, content-addressable memory"}, {"Edwin Beard Budding", "lawnmower"}, {"Gersh Budker", "electron cooling, co-inventor of collider"}, {"Robert Bunsen", "Bunsen burner"}, {"Henry Burden", "Horseshoe machine, first usable iron railed road spike"}, {"Robert Cailliau", "with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web"}, {"Nicholas Callan", "a.o. Induction coil"}, {"Tullio Campagnolo", "Quick release skewer"}, {"Charles Cantor", "Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (molecular biology)"}, {"Mario Ramberg Capecchi", "Gene targeting"}, {"Arturo Caprotti", "Caprotti valve gear"}, {"Gerolamo Cardano", "a.o. Cardan grille (cryptography)"}, {"Chester Carlson", "Xerographic copier"}, {"Wallace Carothers", "Nylon and Neoprene (together with Arnold Collins)"}, {"Antonio Benedetto Carpano", "Vermouth"}, {"Giovanni Caselli", "Pantelegraph"}, {"George Cayley", "tension-spoke wheels"}, {"Anders Celsius", "Celsius temperature scale"}, {"Vint Cerf", "Internet Protocol (IP)"}, {"Ugo Cerletti", "Electroconvulsive therapy"}, {"Charles Chamberland", "Chamberland filter"}, {"Min Chueh Chang", "Combined oral contraceptive pill"}, {"Thomas Chang", "Artificial cell"}, {"Emmett Chapman", "Chapman Stick"}, {"Claude Chappe", "Semaphore line"}, {"David Chaum", "a.o. Digital signatures, ecash"}, {"Pavel Cherenkov", "Cherenkov detector"}, {"Evgeniy Chertovsky", "pressure suit"}, {"Ward Christensen", "Bulletin board system"}, {"Ole Kirk Christiansen", "creator of Lego"}, {"Samuel Hunter Christie", "Wheatstone bridge"}, {"Juan de la Cierva", "the autogyro"}, {"Leland Clark", "Clark electrode (medicine)"}, {"Georges Claude", "neon lamp"}, {"Henri Marie Coandă", "Coandă effect"}, {"Josephine Cochrane", "dishwasher"}, {"Christopher Cockerell", "Hovercraft"}, {"Aeneas Coffey", "Coffey still"}, {"Sir Henry Cole", "Christmas card"}, {"Samuel Colt", "Revolver development"}, {"George Constantinescu", "creator of the theory of sonics, a new branch of continuum mechanics"}, {"Albert Coons", "Immunofluorescence (microscopy)"}, {"Harry Coover", "Super Glue"}, {"Lloyd Groff Copeman", "Electric stove"}, {"Cornelis Corneliszoon", "wind powered sawmill"}, {"Alexander Coucoulas", "Thermosonic bonding"}, {"Wallace H. Coulter", "Coulter principle"}, {"Jacques Cousteau", "co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera"}, {"John 'Jack' Higson Cover Jr.", "Taser"}, {"William Crookes", "Crookes radiometer, Crookes tube"}, {"Bartolomeo Cristofori", "piano"}, {"S. Scott Crump", "a.o. Fused deposition modeling"}, {"Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot", "first steam-powered road vehicle"}, {"William Cullen", "first artificial refrigerator"}, {"Jan Czochralski", "Czochralski process (crystal growth)"}, {"Nils Gustaf Dalén", "AGA cooker, Dalén light, Agamassan, Sun valve for lighthouses and buoys"}, {"John Frederic Daniell", "Daniel cell"}, {"Corradino D'Ascanio", "Vespa scooter"}, {"Leonardo da Vinci", "helicopter, tank, parachute"}, {"Jacob Davis", "Riveted jeans"}, {"Humphry Davy", "Davy miners lamp"}, {"Joseph Day", "the crankcase-compression two-stroke engine"}, {"Lee DeForest", "Phonofilm, triode"}, {"Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk", "3D holography"}, {"Miksa Deri", "co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformer"}, {"James Dewar", "Thermos flask"}, {"Aleksandr Dianin", "Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound"}, {"William Kennedy Laurie Dickson", "motion picture camera"}, {"Philip Diehl", "Ceiling fan"}, {"Rudolf Diesel", "Diesel engine"}, {"William H. Dobelle", "Dobelle Eye"}, {"Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner", "Döbereiner's lamp (chemistry)"}, {"Toshitada Doi", "Compact disc"}, {"Ray Dolby", "Dolby noise-reduction system"}, {"Gene Dolgoff", "LCD projector"}, {"Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky", "three-phase electric power"}, {"Marion O'Brien Donovan", "Waterproof diaper"}, {"John Thompson Dorrance", "Condensed soup"}, {"Charles Dow", "Dow Jones Industrial Average"}, {"Mulalo Doyoyo", "Cenocell"}, {"Anastase Dragomir", "Ejection seat"}, {"Karl Drais", "dandy horse, Draisine"}, {"Richard Drew", "Masking tape"}, {"John Boyd Dunlop", "first practical pneumatic tyre"}, {"Cyril Duquet", "Telephone handset"}, {"Alexey Dushkin", "deep column station"}, {"James Dyson", "Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation."}, {"George Eastman", "roll film"}, {"J. Presper Eckert", "ENIAC"}, {"Thomas Alva Edison", "phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, stock ticker, ticker-tape machine etc."}, {"Pehr Victor Edman", "Edman degradation for Protein sequencing"}, {"Sir Robert Geoffrey Edwards", "In vitro fertilisation"}, {"Ellen Eglin", "Clothes wringer"}, {"Brendan Eich", "JavaScript (programming language)"}, {"Willem Einthoven", "the electrocardiogram"}, {"Benjamin Eisenstadt", "a.o. Sugar packet"}, {"Paul Eisler", "Printed circuit board (electronics)"}, {"Giorgi Eliava", "Phage therapy"}, {"Ivan Elmanov", "first monorail (horse-drawn)"}, {"Rune Elmqvist", "implantable pacemaker"}, {"John Haven Emerson", "iron lung"}, {"Douglas Engelbart", "the computer mouse"}, {"John Ericsson", "the two screw-propeller"}, {"Lars Magnus Ericsson", "the handheld micro telephone[1]"}, {"Emil Erlenmeyer", "Erlenmeyer flask"}, {"Sir Martin John Evans", "Knockout mouse, Gene targeting"}, {"Ole Evinrude", "outboard motor"}, {"Charles Fabry", "Fabry–Pérot interferometer (physics)"}, {"Samuel Face", "concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch"}, {"Federico Faggin", "microprocessor"}, {"Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit", "Fahrenheit temperature scale, Mercury-in-glass thermometer"}, {"Michael Faraday", "electric transformer, electric motor"}, {"Myra Juliet Farrell", "stitchless button, Press stud"}, {"Philo Farnsworth", "a.o. electronic television"}, {"Muhammad al-Fazari", "astrolabe"}, {"John Bennett Fenn", "Electrospray ionization"}, {"Henry John Horstman Fenton", "Fenton's reagent (chemistry)"}, {"James Fergason", "improved liquid crystal display"}, {"Enrico Fermi", "nuclear reactor"}, {"Humberto Fernández Morán", "Diamond scalpel, Ultra microtome"}, {"Michele Ferrero", "Kinder Surprise = Kinder Eggs, Nutella"}, {"Bran Ferren", "Pinch-to-zoom (multi-touch), together with Daniel Hillis"}, {"Reginald Fessenden", "two-way radio"}, {"Robert Feulgen", "Feulgen stain (histology)"}, {"Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick", "contact lens"}, {"Abbas Ibn Firnas", "artificial wings, fused quartz and silica glass, metronome"}, {"Artur Fischer", "fasteners including fischertechnik."}, {"Franz Joseph Emil Fischer", "Fischer assay (oil yield test)"}, {"Franz Joseph Emil Fischer", "Fischer–Tropsch process (refinery process)"}, {"Gerhard Fischer", "hand-held metal detector"}, {"Paul C. Fisher", "Space Pen"}, {"Alexander Fleming", "Penicillin"}, {"John Ambrose Fleming", "Vacuum diode"}, {"Sandford Fleming", "Universal Standard Time"}, {"Nicolas Florine", "first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely"}, {"Tommy Flowers", "Colossus an early electronic computer."}, {"Thomas J. Fogarty", "Embolectomy catheter (medicine)"}, {"Enrico Forlanini", "Steam helicopter, hydrofoil, Forlanini airships"}, {"Eric Fossum", "intra-pixel charge transfer in CMOS image sensors"}, {"Jean Bernard Léon Foucault", "Foucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy current"}, {"Benoît Fourneyron", "water turbine"}, {"John Fowler", "steam-driven ploughing engine"}, {"Benjamin Franklin", "the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica"}, {"Herman Frasch", "Frasch process (petrochemistry), Paraffin wax purification"}, {"Ian Hector Frazer", "HPV vaccine against cervical cancer"}, {"Augustin-Jean Fresnel", "Fresnel lens"}, {"William Friese-Greene", "cinematography"}, {"Julius Fromm", "first seamless Condom"}, {"Arthur Fry", "Post-it note"}, {"Buckminster Fuller", "geodesic dome"}, {"Robert Fulton", "first commercially successful steamboat, first practical submarine"}, {"Ivan Fyodorov", "invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia"}, {"Svyatoslav Fyodorov", "radial keratotomy"}, {"Vladimir Fyodorov", "Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)"}, {"Dennis Gabor", "holography"}, {"Boris Borisovich Galitzine", "electromagnetic seismograph"}, {"Joseph G. Gall", "In situ hybridization (cell biology)"}, {"Alfred William Gallagher", "Electric fence for farmers"}, {"Dmitri Garbuzov", "continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers"}, {"Elmer R. Gates", "foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ('box & blocks')"}, {"Richard J. Gatling", "wheat drill, first successful machine gun"}, {"Georgy Gause", "gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics"}, {"E. K. Gauzen", "three bolt equipment (early diving costume)"}, {"Norman Gaylord", "rigid gas-permeable contact lens"}, {"Karl-Hermann Geib", "Girdler sulfide process"}, {"Hans Wilhelm Geiger", "Geiger counter"}, {"Andrey Geim", "graphene"}, {"Nestor Genko", "Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)"}, {"Christoph Gerber", "Atomic force microscope"}, {"Friedrich Clemens Gerke", "current international Morse code"}, {"David Gestetner", "a.o. Gestetner copier"}, {"Alberto Gianni", "Torretta butoscopica"}, {"John Heysham Gibbon", "Heart-lung machine"}, {"Gustav Giemsa", "Giemsa stain (histology)"}, {"Adolph Giesl-Gieslingen", "Giesl ejector"}, {"Henri Giffard", "powered airship, injector"}, {"Donald A. Glaser", "Bubble chamber"}, {"C. W. Fuller", "Gilhoolie"}, {"Valentyn Glushko", "hypergolic propellant, electric propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)"}, {"Heinrich Göbel", "incandescent lamp"}, {"Leonid Gobyato", "man-portable mortar"}, {"Robert Goddard", "liquid fuel rocket"}, {"Sam Golden", "Acrylic paint"}, {"Peter Carl Goldmark", "vinyl record (LP), CBS color television"}, {"Camillo Golgi", "Golgi's method (histology)"}, {"Charles Goodyear", "vulcanization of rubber"}, {"Robert W. Gore", "Gore-Tex"}, {"Igor Gorynin", "weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminium alloys, radiation-hardened steels"}, {"James Gosling", "Java (programming language)"}, {"Gordon Gould", "Laser, see also Theodore Maiman"}, {"Richard Hall Gower", "ship's hull and rigging"}, {"Boris Grabovsky", "cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube"}, {"Bette Nesmith Graham", "Correction fluid, Liquid Paper"}, {"Hans Christian Gram", "Gram staining (histology)"}, {"Zénobe Gramme", "Gramme dynamo"}, {"James Henry Greathead", "tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique"}, {"Chester Greenwood", "thermal earmuffs"}, {"James Gregory", "Gregorian telescope"}, {"Charles Leiper Grigg", "7 Up"}, {"William Robert Grove", "fuel cell"}, {"Gustav Guanella", "DSSS, Guanella-Balun"}, {"Otto von Guericke", "vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter"}, {"Joseph-Ignace Guillotin", "Guillotine"}, {"Mikhail Gurevich", "MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)"}, {"Goldsworthy Gurney", "Gurney Stove"}, {"Bartolomeu de Gusmão", "early air balloons"}, {"Johann Gutenberg", "movable type printing press"}, {"Samuel Guthrie (physician)", "discovered chloroform"}, {"Fritz Haber", "Haber process (ammonia synthesis)"}, {"John Hadley", "Octant"}, {"Waldemar Haffkine", "first anti-cholera and anti-plague vaccines"}, {"Gunther von Hagens", "whole body Plastination"}, {"Charles Hall", "aluminum production"}, {"Robert N. Hall", "a.o. Semiconductor laser"}, {"Tracy Hall", "synthetic diamond"}, {"Richard Hamming", "Hamming code"}, {"John Hays Hammond Jr.", "radio control"}, {"Ruth Handler", "Barbie doll"}, {"James Hargreaves", "spinning jenny"}, {"John Harington", "the flush toilet"}, {"William Snow Harris", "much improved naval Lightning rods"}, {"John Harrison", "marine chronometer"}, {"Ross Granville Harrison", "first successful animal Tissue culture, Cell culture"}, {"Kazuo Hashimoto", "a.o. Caller-ID, answering machine"}, {"Victor Hasselblad", "invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera"}, {"Ibn al-Haytham", "camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass"}, {"Zheng He", "Chinese treasure ship"}, {"George H. Heilmeier", "liquid crystal display (LCD)"}, {"Henry Heimlich", "Heimlich maneuver"}, {"Robert A. Heinlein", "waterbed"}, {"Jozef Karol Hell", "the water pillar"}, {"Rudolf Hell", "the Hellschreiber"}, {"Hermann von Helmholtz", "Helmholtz pitch notation, Helmholtz resonator, ophthalmoscope"}, {"Greg Henderson (inventor)", "hoverboard, Magnetic field architecture, SAFE Building System"}, {"Zhang Heng", "Seismometer, first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere"}, {"Beulah Louise Henry", "bobbin-free sewing machine, vacuum ice cream freezer"}, {"Charles H. Henry", "Quantum well laser"}, {"Joseph Henry", "electromagnetic relay"}, {"Félix d'Herelle", "Phage therapy"}, {"Heron", "usually credited with invention of the aeolipile, although it may have been described a century earlier"}, {"John Herschel", "photographic fixer (hypo), actinometer"}, {"Heinrich Hertz", "radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation"}, {"Ephraim Hertzano", "Rummikub"}, {"Lasse Hessel", "Female condom"}, {"George de Hevesy", "radioactive tracer"}, {"Ronald Price Hickman", "designed the original Lotus Elan, the Lotus Elan +2 and the Lotus Europa, as well as the Black & Decker Workmate"}, {"Rowland Hill", "postage stamp"}, {"Maurice Hilleman", "vaccines against childhood diseases"}, {"Tanaka Hisashige", "Myriad year clock"}, {"Ted Hoff", "microprocessor"}, {"Felix Hoffmann", "Aspirin"}, {"Albert Hofmann", "LSD"}, {"Kotaro Honda", "KS steel"}, {"Huang Hongjia", "Single-mode optical fiber."}, {"Herman Hollerith", "recording data on a machine readable medium, tabulator, punched cards"}, {"Nick Holonyak", "LED (Light Emitting Diode)"}, {"Norman Holter", "Holter monitor"}, {"Robert Hooke", "balance wheel, iris diaphragm, acoustic telephone"}, {"Erna Schneider Hoover", "computerized telephone switching system"}, {"Grace Murray Hopper", "Compiler"}, {"Frank Hornby", "invented Meccano"}, {"Jimmy Hotz", "Hotz MIDI Translator, Atari Hotz Box"}, {"Royal Earl House", "first Printing telegraph"}, {"Coenraad Johannes van Houten", "cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk"}, {"Elias Howe", "sewing machine"}, {"Chuck Hull", "3D printer"}, {"Miller Reese Hutchison", "a.o. Klaxon, electric hearing aid"}, {"Christiaan Huygens", "pendulum clock"}, {"John Wesley Hyatt", "celluloid manufacturing."}, {"Gavriil Ilizarov", "Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis"}, {"Mamoru Imura", "RFIQin (automatic cooking device)"}, {"Daisuke Inoue", "Karaoke machine"}, {"János Irinyi", "noiseless match"}, {"Ub Iwerks", "Multiplane camera for animation"}, {"Moritz von Jacobi", "electrotyping, electric boat"}, {"Rudolf Jaenisch", "first Genetically modified mouse"}, {"Karl Guthe Jansky", "radio telescope"}, {"Karl Jatho", "aeroplane"}, {"Ali Javan", "Gas laser (Helium-Neon)"}, {"Al-Jazari", "crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkage"}, {"Ibn Al-Jazzar", "sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs"}, {"Ányos Jedlik", "Jedlik dynamo"}, {"Alec John Jeffreys", "DNA profiling (forensics)"}, {"Charles Francis Jenkins", "television and movie projector (Phantoscope)"}, {"Steve Jobs", "Apple Macintosh computer, iPod, iPhone, iPad and other devices and software operating systems and applications."}, {"Amos Edward Joel Jr.", "electrical engineer, known for several contributions and over seventy patents related to telecommunications switching systems"}, {"Carl Edvard Johansson", "Gauge blocks"}, {"Johan Petter Johansson", "Pipe wrench and adjustable spanner"}, {"Reynold B. Johnson", "Hard disk drive"}, {"Philipp von Jolly", "Jolly balance"}, {"Scott A. Jones", "created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine"}, {"Tom Parry Jones", "first electronic Breathalyzer"}, {"Assen Jordanoff", "airbag"}, {"Marjorie Joyner", "Permanent wave machine"}, {"Whitcomb Judson", "zipper"}, {"Percy Lavon Julian", "chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants"}, {"Ma Jun", "south-pointing chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms"}, {"Mikhail Kalashnikov", "AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (the most produced ever)[2]"}, {"Bob Kahn", "Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)"}, {"Dawon Kahng", "Floating-gate MOSFET"}, {"Dean Kamen", "Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device"}, {"Heike Kamerlingh Onnes", "liquid helium"}, {"Nikolay Kamov", "armored battle autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters"}, {"Pyotr Kapitsa", "first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions"}, {"Georgii Karpechenko", "rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)"}, {"Jamshīd al-Kāshī", "plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer"}, {"Yevgeny Kaspersky", "Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products"}, {"Andrew Kay", "Digital voltmeter"}, {"Adolphe Kégresse", "Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission"}, {"Carl D. Keith", "three way catalytic converter"}, {"Mstislav Keldysh", "co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Tikhonravov"}, {"John G. Kemeny", "BASIC (programming language)"}, {"Alexander Kemurdzhian", "first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)"}, {"Mary Beatrice Davidson Kenner", "sanitary belt"}, {"William Saville-Kent", "Pearl culture, see also Mikimoto Kōkichi"}, {"Kerim Kerimov", "co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station"}, {"Charles F. Kettering", "invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more"}, {"Fazlur Khan", "structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers"}, {"Yulii Khariton", "chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb"}, {"Anatoly Kharlampiev", "Sambo (martial art)"}, {"Al-Khazini", "hydrostatic balance"}, {"Konstantin Khrenov", "underwater welding"}, {"Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi", "astronomical sextant"}, {"Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī", "modern algebra, mural instrument, horary quadrant, Sine quadrant, shadow square"}, {"Marcel Kiepach", "dynamo, maritime compass that indicates north regardless of the presence of iron or magnetic forces"}, {"Erhard Kietz", "signal improvements for video transmissions[3]"}, {"Jack Kilby", "patented the first integrated circuit"}, {"Al-Kindi", "unambiguously described the distillation of wine in the 9th century, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis"}, {"Petrus Jacobus Kipp", "Kipp's apparatus (chemistry)"}, {"Steve Kirsch", "Optical mouse"}, {"Fritz Klatte", "vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride"}, {"Yves Klein", "International Klein Blue"}, {"Margaret E. Knight", "machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags"}, {"Tom Knight", "), USA"}, {"Ivan Knunyants", "capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6"}, {"Robert Koch", "method for culturing bacteria on solid media"}, {"Willem Johan Kolff", "artificial kidney hemodialysis machine"}, {"Rudolf Kompfner", "Traveling-wave tube"}, {"Konstantin Konstantinov", "device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine"}, {"Sergey Korolyov", "first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)"}, {"Nikolai Korotkov", "auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement"}, {"Semen Korsakov", "punched card for information storage"}, {"Mikhail Koshkin", "T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II[4]"}, {"Ognjeslav Kostović", "arborite (high-strength plywood, an early plastic)"}, {"Gleb Kotelnikov", "knapsack parachute, drogue parachute"}, {"William Justin Kroll", "Kroll process"}, {"Alexei Krylov", "gyroscopic damping of ships"}, {"Ivan Kulibin", "egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, a self-rolling carriage featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, an early optical telegraph"}, {"Shen Kuo", "improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tube"}, {"Igor Kurchatov", "first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships"}, {"Thomas E. Kurtz", "BASIC (programming language)"}, {"Ken Kutaragi", "PlayStation"}, {"Stephanie Kwolek", "Kevlar"}, {"John Howard Kyan", "The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation"}, {"Dmitry Lachinov", "mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, electrolyser"}, {"René Laennec", "stethoscope"}, {"Georges Lakhovsky", "Multiple Wave Oscillator"}, {"Hedy Lamarr", "Spread spectrum radio"}, {"Edwin H. Land", "Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera"}, {"Samuel P. Langley", "bolometer"}, {"Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin", "incandescent lamp"}, {"Irving Langmuir", "gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding"}, {"Norm Larsen", "a.o. WD-40"}, {"Lewis Latimer", "improved carbon-filament light bulb"}, {"Gustav de Laval", "invented the milk separator and the milking machine"}, {"Semyon Lavochkin", "La-series aircraft, first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut"}, {"John Bennet Lawes", "superphosphate or chemical fertilizer"}, {"Ernest Orlando Lawrence", "Cyclotron"}, {"Nikolai Lebedenko", "Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history"}, {"Sergei Lebedev", "commercially viable synthetic rubber"}, {"William Lee", "Stocking frame knitting machine"}, {"Antoni van Leeuwenhoek", "development of the microscope"}, {"Jerome H. Lemelson", "Inventions in the fields in which he patented make possible, wholly or in part, innovations like automated warehouses, industrial robots, cordless telephones, fax machines, videocassette recorders, camcorders, and the magnetic tape drive used in Sony's Walkman tape players."}, {"Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir", "internal combustion engine, motorboat"}, {"Giacomo da Lentini", "Sonnet"}, {"R. G. LeTourneau", "electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers"}, {"Rasmus Lerdorf", "PHP (programming language)"}, {"Willard Frank Libby", "radiocarbon dating"}, {"Justus von Liebig", "nitrogen-based fertilizer"}, {"Otto Lilienthal", "hang glider"}, {"Lin Yutang", "Chinese language typewriter"}, {"Charles Lindbergh", "organ perfusion pump"}, {"Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist", "Kerosene stove operated by compressed air"}, {"Carl Linnaeus", "formal Binomial nomenclature for living organisms, Horologium Florae"}, {"Hans Lippershey", "associated with the appearance of the telescope"}, {"Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann", "Lippmann plate, Integral imaging, Lippmann electrometer"}, {"Lisitsyn", "samovar (the first documented makers)"}, {"William Howard Livens", "chemical warfare"}, {"Eduard Locher", "Locher rack railway system"}, {"Alexander Lodygin", "electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament"}, {"Mikhail Lomonosov", "night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, re-invented smalt"}, {"Yury Lomonosov", "first successful mainline diesel locomotive"}, {"Aleksandr Loran", "after 1911), Russia"}, {"Oleg Losev", "light-emitting diode, crystadine"}, {"Antoine Louis", "Guillotine"}, {"Archibald Low", "Pioneer of radio guidance systems"}, {"Ed Lowe", "Cat litter"}, {"Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy", "Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project"}, {"Ignacy Łukasiewicz", "Kerosene lamp"}, {"Auguste and Louis Lumière", "Cinématographe"}, {"Cai Lun", "paper"}, {"Giovanni Luppis", "self-propelled torpedo"}, {"Richard F. Lyon", "Optical mouse"}, {"Arkhip Lyulka", "first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines"}, {"Charles Macintosh", "waterproof raincoat, life vest"}, {"Theodore Maiman", "Laser, see also Gordon Gould"}, {"Ahmed Majan", "instrumented racehorse saddle and others"}, {"Aleksandr Makarov", "Orbitrap mass spectrometer"}, {"Stepan Makarov", "Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice"}, {"Victor Makeev", "first submarine-launched ballistic missile"}, {"Nestor Makhno", "tachanka"}, {"Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov", "Maksutov telescope"}, {"Annie Malone", "Cosmetics for African American women"}, {"Sergey Malyutin", "designed the first matryoshka doll (together with Vasily Zvyozdochkin)"}, {"Al-Ma'mun", "singing bird automata, terrestrial globe"}, {"Boris Mamyrin", "reflectron (ion mirror)"}, {"George William Manby", "Fire extinguisher"}, {"Joy Mangano", "household appliances"}, {"Charles Mantoux", "Mantoux test (tuberculosis)"}, {"Guglielmo Marconi", "radio telegraphy"}, {"Gheorghe Marinescu", "the first science films in the world in the neurology clinic in Bucharest (1898–1901)"}, {"Sylvester Marsh", "Marsh rack railway system"}, {"Konosuke Matsushita", "a.o. battery-powered Bicycle lighting"}, {"Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf", "steam turbine, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, framed sextant"}, {"John Landis Mason", "Mason jars"}, {"Fujio Masuoka", "Flash memory"}, {"John W. Mauchly", "ENIAC"}, {"Henry Maudslay", "screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer"}, {"Hiram Maxim", "First self-powered machine gun"}, {"James Clerk Maxwell", "color photography"}, {"Stanley Mazor", "microprocessor"}, {"John Loudon McAdam", "improved 'macadam' road surface"}, {"Elijah McCoy", "Displacement lubricator"}, {"Nicholas McKay Sr.", "Lint roller"}, {"James McLurkin", "Ant robotics (robotics)"}, {"Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov", "probiotics"}, {"Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès", "margarine"}, {"Mordecai Meirowitz", "Mastermind (board game)"}, {"Dmitri Mendeleev", "Periodic table, pycnometer, pyrocollodion"}, {"George de Mestral", "Velcro"}, {"Robert Metcalfe", "Ethernet"}, {"Antonio Meucci", "a.o. various early telephones, a hygrometer, a milk test"}, {"Édouard Michelin", "pneumatic tire"}, {"Anthony Michell", "tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless engine"}, {"Artem Mikoyan", "MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)"}, {"Alexander Mikulin", "Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank"}, {"Mikhail Mil", "Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)"}, {"David L. Mills", "a.o. Fuzzball router, Network Time Protocol"}, {"Marvin Minsky", "a.o. Confocal microscopy"}, {"Tokushichi Mishima", "MKM magnetic steel"}, {"Pavel Molchanov", "Radiosonde"}, {"Jules Montenier", "Anti-perspirant deodorant"}, {"Montgolfier", "hot air balloon"}, {"John J. Montgomery", "heavier-than-air gliders"}, {"Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol", "steam powered submarine"}, {"Robert Moog", "the Moog synthesizer"}, {"John J. Mooney", "three way catalytic converter"}, {"Roland Moreno", "inventor of the smart card"}, {"Samuel Morey", "internal combustion engine"}, {"Garrett A. Morgan", "inventor of the smoke hood"}, {"Alexander Morozov", "T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34"}, {"Walter Frederick Morrison", "Flying disc"}, {"William Morrison (dentist)", "a.o. Cotton candy machine"}, {"Samuel Morse", "early Morse code, see also Morse Code controversy"}, {"Sergei Ivanovich Mosin", "Mosin–Nagant rifle"}, {"Motorins", "Tsar Bell"}, {"Vera Mukhina", "welded sculpture"}, {"Kary Mullis", "PCR"}, {"Fe del Mundo", "medical incubator made out of bamboo for use in rural communities without electrical power"}, {"Colin Murdoch", "a.o. Tranquillizer gun, disposable hypodermic syringe"}, {"William Murdoch", "Gas lighting"}, {"Jozef Murgas", "inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)"}, {"Evgeny Murzin", "ANS synthesizer"}, {"Banū Mūsā", "mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machine"}, {"Pieter van Musschenbroek", "Leyden jar, pyrometer"}, {"Walton Musser", "Harmonic drive gear"}, {"Eadweard Muybridge", "motion picture"}, {"Georgi Nadjakov", "wikt:photoelectret"}, {"Alexander Nadiradze", "first mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)"}, {"Nagai Nagayoshi", "Methamphetamine"}, {"James Naismith", "invented basketball and American football helmet"}, {"Yoshiro Nakamatsu", "'PyonPyon' spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair 'Cerebrex', sauce pump, taxicab meter"}, {"Shuji Nakamura", "Blue laser"}, {"John Napier", "logarithms"}, {"Andrey Nartov", "first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge–boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight"}, {"James Nasmyth", "steam hammer"}, {"Giulio Natta", "Ziegler–Natta catalyst"}, {"Nebuchadrezzar II", "screw, screwpump"}, {"Erwin Neher", "Patch clamp technique"}, {"Ted Nelson", "Hypertext, Hypermedia"}, {"Sergey Nepobedimiy", "first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry"}, {"Karl Nessler", "a.o. Permanent wave machine, artificial eyebrows"}, {"Bernard de Neumann", "massively parallel self-configuring multi-processor"}, {"John von Neumann", "Von Neumann computer architecture"}, {"Isaac Newton", "reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)"}, {"Miguel Nicolelis", "Brain-machine interfaces"}, {"Joseph Nicephore Niépce", "photography"}, {"Nikolai Nikitin", "prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)"}, {"Paul Gottlieb Nipkow", "Nipkow disk"}, {"Jun-Ichi Nishizawa", "Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode"}, {"Alfred Nobel", "dynamite"}, {"Ludvig Nobel", "first successful oil tanker"}, {"Jean-Antoine Nollet", "Electroscope"}, {"Wilhelm Normann", "Hydrogenation of fats"}, {"Carl Richard Nyberg", "the blowtorch"}, {"Aaron D. O'Connell", "first Quantum machine"}, {"Theophil Wilgodt Odhner", "the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator"}, {"Jarkko Oikarinen", "Internet Relay Chat (IRC)"}, {"Katsuhiko Okamoto", "Okamoto Cubes = modifications of Rubik's Cube"}, {"Ransom Eli Olds", "Assembly line"}, {"Lucien Olivier", "Russian salad (Olivier salad)"}, {"Gerard K. O'Neill", "Storage ring (physics)"}, {"J. Robert Oppenheimer", "Atomic bomb"}, {"Edward Otho Cresap Ord II", "weapon sights & mining"}, {"Hans Christian Ørsted", "electromagnetism, aluminium"}, {"Elisha Otis", "safety system for elevators"}, {"William Oughtred", "slide rule"}, {"Arogyaswami Paulraj", "MIMO"}, {"Antonio Pacinotti", "Pacinotti dynamo"}, {"Larry Page", "with Sergey Brin invented Google web search engine"}, {"William Painter", "a.o. Crown cork, Bottle opener"}, {"Alexey Pajitnov", "Tetris"}, {"Julio Palmaz", "balloon-expandable, stent"}, {"Helge Palmcrantz", "the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun"}, {"Daniel David Palmer", "chiropractic"}, {"Luigi Palmieri", "seismometer"}, {"Frank Pantridge", "Portable defibrillator"}, {"Georgios Papanikolaou", "Papanicolaou stain, Pap test = Pap smear"}, {"Philip M. Parker", "computer automated book authoring"}, {"Alexander Parkes", "celluloid"}, {"Forrest Parry", "Magnetic stripe card"}, {"Charles Algernon Parsons", "steam turbine"}, {"Spede Pasanen", "a.o. ski jumping sling, boat ski"}, {"Blaise Pascal", "Pascal's calculator"}, {"Gustaf Erik Pasch", "safety match"}, {"Dimitar Paskov", "Galantamine"}, {"C. Kumar N. Patel", "Carbon dioxide laser"}, {"Les Paul", "multitrack recording"}, {"Andreas Pavel", "audio devices"}, {"Ivan Pavlov", "classical conditioning"}, {"Floyd Paxton", "a.o. Bread clip"}, {"John Pemberton", "Coca-Cola"}, {"Slavoljub Eduard Penkala", "mechanical pencil"}, {"William Henry Perkin", "first synthetic organic chemical dye Mauveine"}, {"Henry Perky", "shredded wheat"}, {"Alfred Perot", "Fabry–Pérot interferometer (physics)"}, {"Stephen Perry", "rubber band"}, {"Aurel Persu", "first aerodynamic car, aluminum body with wheels included under the body, 1922"}, {"Vladimir Petlyakov", "heavy bomber"}, {"Julius Richard Petri", "Petri dish"}, {"Peter Petroff", "digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments"}, {"Fritz Pfleumer", "magnetic tape"}, {"Auguste Piccard", "Bathyscaphe"}, {"Gregory Goodwin Pincus", "Combined oral contraceptive pill"}, {"Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov", "early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations"}, {"Fyodor Pirotsky", "electric tram"}, {"Arthur Pitney", "postage meter"}, {"Hippolyte Pixii", "Pixii dynamo"}, {"Joseph Plateau", "phenakistiscope (stroboscope)"}, {"Baltzar von Platen", "gas absorption refrigerator"}, {"James Leonard Plimpton", "roller skates"}, {"Ivan Plotnikov", "kirza leather"}, {"Roy Plunkett", "Teflon"}, {"Petrache Poenaru", "fountain pen"}, {"Christopher Polhem", "Padlock"}, {"Nikolai Polikarpov", "Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)"}, {"Eugene Polley", "wireless remote control (with Robert Adler)"}, {"Ivan Polzunov", "first two-cylinder steam engine"}, {"Mikhail Pomortsev", "nephoscope"}, {"Olivia Poole", "the Jolly Jumper baby harness"}, {"Alexander Popov", "radio pioneer, created a radio receiver that worked as a lightning detector"}, {"Nikolay Popov", "first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)"}, {"Aleksandr Porokhovschikov", "Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first caterpillar amphibious ATV)"}, {"Ignazio Porro", "Porro prism, strip camera"}, {"Valdemar Poulsen", "magnetic wire recorder, arc converter"}, {"Joseph Priestley", "soda water"}, {"Alexander Procofieff de Seversky", "first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, ionocraft, also developed air-to-air refueling"}, {"Alexander Prokhorov", "co-inventor of laser and maser"}, {"Petro Prokopovych", "early beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties"}, {"Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky", "early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures"}, {"Mark Publicover", "First affordable trampoline safety net enclosure"}, {"George Pullman", "Pullman sleep wagon"}, {"Michael I. Pupin", "pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator"}, {"Tivadar Puskas", "telephone exchange"}, {"Calvin Quate", "Atomic force microscope"}, {"Adolphe Quetelet", "Body mass index (BMI)"}, {"Jacob Rabinow", "a.o. Magnetic particle clutch, various Phonograph-related patents"}, {"John Goffe Rand", "Tube (container)"}, {"Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi", "distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, sodium hydroxide"}, {"Alec Reeves", "Pulse-code modulation"}, {"Karl von Reichenbach", "paraffin, creosote oil, phenol"}, {"Tadeus Reichstein", "Reichstein process (industrial vitamin C synthesis)"}, {"Ira Remsen", "saccharin"}, {"Ralf Reski", "Moss bioreactor 1998"}, {"Josef Ressel", "ship propeller"}, {"Ri Sung-gi", "Vinylon"}, {"Charles Francis Richter", "Richter magnitude scale"}, {"Adolph Rickenbacker", "Electric guitar"}, {"Hyman George Rickover", "Nuclear submarine"}, {"Niklaus Riggenbach", "Riggenbach rack railway system, Counter-pressure brake"}, {"Dennis Ritchie", "C (programming language)"}, {"Gilles de Roberval", "Roberval balance"}, {"John Roebuck", "lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis"}, {"Francis Rogallo", "Rogallo wing"}, {"Heinrich Rohrer", "Scanning tunneling microscope"}, {"Peter I the Great", "decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)"}, {"Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen", "the X-ray machine"}, {"Ida Rosenthal", "Bra (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)"}, {"Sidney Rosenthal", "Magic Marker"}, {"Eugene Roshal", "FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver"}, {"Boris Rosing", "CRT television (first television system using CRT on the receiving side)"}, {"Guido van Rossum", "Python (programming language)"}, {"Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier", "Rozière balloon"}, {"Ernő Rubik", "Rubik's Cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock"}, {"Ernst Ruska", "electron microscope"}, {"Albert Bruce Sabin", "oral Polio vaccine"}, {"Alexander Sablukov", "centrifugal fan"}, {"Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu", "illustrated surgical atlas"}, {"Gilles Saint-Hilaire", "Quasiturbine, Qurbine"}, {"Andrei Sakharov", "invented explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developed the Tsar Bomb and tokamak"}, {"Jonas Edward Salk", "injection Polio vaccine"}, {"Franz San Galli", "radiator, central heating"}, {"Frederick Sanger", "Sanger sequencing (= DNA sequencing)"}, {"Larry Sanger", "Wikipedia"}, {"Yoshiyuki Sankai", "Robotic exoskeleton for motion support (medicine)"}, {"Alberto Santos-Dumont", "non-rigid airship and airplane"}, {"Arthur William Savage", "radial tires, gun magazines, Savage Model 99 lever action rifle"}, {"Thomas Savery", "steam engine"}, {"Adolphe Sax", "saxophone"}, {"Vincent Joseph Schaefer", "a.o. Cloud seeding by dry ice"}, {"Bela Schick", "diphtheria test"}, {"Hugo Schiff", "Schiff test (histology)"}, {"Pavel Schilling", "first electromagnetic telegraph, mine with an electric fuse"}, {"Gilmore Schjeldahl", "Airsickness bag"}, {"Hubert Schlafly", "Teleprompter = Autocue"}, {"Wilhelm Schlenk", "Schlenk flask (chemistry)"}, {"Bernhard Schmidt", "Schmidt camera"}, {"Otto Schmitt", "Schmitt trigger (electronics)"}, {"Christian Schnabel", "simplistic food cutleries"}, {"Kees A. Schouhamer Immink", "Major contributor to development of Compact Disc"}, {"August Schrader", "Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire"}, {"David Schwarz", "rigid ship, later called Zeppelin"}, {"Marc Seguin", "wire-cable suspension bridge"}, {"Hanaoka Seishū", "General anaesthetic"}, {"Ted Selker", "Pointing stick"}, {"Sennacherib", "screw pump"}, {"Léon Serpollet", "Flash boiler, Gardner-Serpollet steam car"}, {"Iwan Serrurier", "inventor of the Moviola for film editing"}, {"Mark Serrurier", "Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes"}, {"Gerhard Sessler", "foil electret microphone, silicon microphone"}, {"Guy Severin", "extra-vehicular activity supporting system"}, {"Ed Seymour", "Aerosol paint"}, {"Leonty Shamshurenkov", "first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge"}, {"Ibn al-Shatir", "'jewel box' device which combined a compass with a universal sundial"}, {"Bi Sheng", "clay movable type printing"}, {"Murasaki Shikibu", "psychological novel"}, {"Pyotr Shilovsky", "gyrocar"}, {"Masatoshi Shima", "microprocessor"}, {"Fathullah Shirazi", "early volley gun"}, {"Joseph Shivers", "Spandex"}, {"William Bradford Shockley", "co-inventor of transistor"}, {"Henry Shrapnel", "Shrapnel shell ammunition"}, {"Vladimir Shukhov", "thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot"}, {"Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor", "cell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space"}, {"Augustus Siebe", "Inventor of the standard diving dress"}, {"Sir William Siemens", "regenerative furnace"}, {"Werner von Siemens", "a.o. electric elevator, Electromote (= first trolleybus), an early Dynamo"}, {"Al-Sijzi", "heliocentric astrolabe"}, {"Igor Sikorsky", "first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters"}, {"Bernard Silver", "Barcode"}, {"Kia Silverbrook", "Memjet printer, world's most prolific inventor"}, {"Vladimir Simonov", "APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol"}, {"Charles Simonyi", "Hungarian notation"}, {"Ibn Sina (Avicenna)", "steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blocker"}, {"Isaac Singer", "sewing machine"}, {"B. F. Skinner", "Operant conditioning chamber"}, {"Nikolay Slavyanov", "shielded metal arc welding"}, {"Alexander Smakula", "anti-reflective coating"}, {"Michael Smith", "Site-directed mutagenesis (molecular biology)"}, {"Oliver Smithies", "Knockout mouse, Gene targeting"}, {"Yefim Smolin", "table-glass (stakan granyonyi)"}, {"Friedrich Soennecken", "Ring binder, Hole punch"}, {"Su Song", "first chain drive"}, {"Marin Soljačić", "Resonant inductive coupling"}, {"Edwin Southern", "Southern blot (molecular biology)"}, {"Alfred P. Southwick", "Electric chair"}, {"Igor Spassky", "Sea Launch platform"}, {"Percy Spencer", "microwave oven"}, {"Elmer Ambrose Sperry", "gyroscope-guided automatic pilot"}, {"Lyman Spitzer", "Stellarator (physics)"}, {"Bhargav Sri Prakash", "Learnification platform at FriendsLearn, Virtual Reality System, electromagnetic collision avoidance system, OBD based in-vehicle powertrain performance measurement, rate based driver controls for drive by wire systems"}, {"Ladislas Starevich", "puppet animation, live-action/animated film"}, {"Gary Starkweather", "laser printer, color management"}, {"Boris Stechkin", "co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Tsar Tank, developer of Soviet heat and aircraft engines"}, {"George Stephenson", "steam railway"}, {"Simon Stevin", "land yacht"}, {"Andreas Stihl", "Electric chain saw"}, {"Reverend Dr Robert Stirling", "Stirling engine"}, {"Aurel Stodola", "gas turbines"}, {"Aleksandr Stoletov", "first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect"}, {"Levi Strauss", "blue jeans"}, {"John Stringfellow", "aerial steam carriage"}, {"Bjarne Stroustrup", "C++ (programming language)"}, {"Almon Strowger", "automatic telephone exchange"}, {"Emil Strub", "Strub rack railway system"}, {"Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi", "timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe"}, {"Kyota Sugimoto", "Japanese language typewriter"}, {"Mutsuo Sugiura", "Esophagogastroduodenoscope"}, {"Pavel Sukhoi", "Su-series fighter aircraft"}, {"Simon Sunatori", "inventor of MagneScribe and Magic Spicer"}, {"Sushruta", "inventor of Plastic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, Rhinoplasty"}, {"Theodor Svedberg", "Analytical ultracentrifuge"}, {"Joseph Swan", "Incandescent light bulb"}, {"Robert Swanson", "Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotives"}, {"Andrei Sychra", "Inventor of Music Identification System and the Mico Changer (coin hopper and dispenser used in casinos)"}, {"Vladimir Syromyatnikov", "Russian seven-string guitar"}, {"Simon Sze", "Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms"}, {"Leó Szilárd", "Floating-gate MOSFET"}, {"Muhammad Salih Tahtawi", "Co-developed the atomic bomb, patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project"}, {"Gyula Takátsy", "seamless globe and celestial globe"}, {"Esther Takeuchi", "first Microtiter plate"}, {"Igor Tamm", "holds more than 150 US-patents, the largest number for any woman in the United States"}, {"Ching W. Tang", "co-developer of tokamak"}, {"Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi", "OLED"}, {"Gustav Tauschek", "counterweight trebuchet, mangonel"}, {"Kenyon Taylor", "Drum memory"}, {"Bernard Tellegen", "Flip-disc display"}, {"Edward Teller", "pentode"}, {"Nikola Tesla", "hydrogen bomb"}, {"Léon Theremin", "induction motor, high-voltage / high-frequency power experiments, the transmission of electrical power"}, {"Charles Xavier Thomas", "theremin, interlace, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)"}, {"Elihu Thomson", "Arithmometer"}, {"William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin", "Prolific inventor, Arc lamp and many others"}, {"Eric Tigerstedt", "Kelvin absolute temperature scale"}, {"Kalman Tihanyi", "Sound-on-film, triode vacuum tube"}, {"Mikhail Tikhonravov", "co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope"}, {"Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov", "co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks"}, {"Benjamin Chew Tilghman", "feathering spectrograph"}, {"Fedor Tokarev", "sandblasting"}, {"Ray Tomlinson", "TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle"}, {"Evangelista Torricelli", "First inter-computer email"}, {"Alfred Traeger", "barometer"}, {"Richard Trevithick", "Pedal radio"}, {"Franc Trkman", "high-pressure steam engine, first full-scale steam locomotive"}, {"Hans Tropsch", "electrical switches, accessories for opening windows"}, {"Yuri Trutnev", "Fischer–Tropsch process (refinery process)"}, {"Roger Y. Tsien", "co-developer of the Tsar Bomb"}, {"Konstantin Tsiolkovsky", "Discovery and development of Green fluorescent protein"}, {"Mikhail Tsvet", "spaceflight"}, {"Alexei Tupolev", "chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)"}, {"Andrei Tupolev", "the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)"}, {"Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī", "turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)"}, {"Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī", "observatory, Tusi-couple"}, {"Shintaro Uda", "linear astrolabe"}, {"Lewis Urry", "Yagi-Uda antenna"}, {"Tomislav Uzelac", "long-lasting alkaline battery"}, {"Ira Van Gieson", "first successful MP3 player, AMP"}, {"Theophilus Van Kannel", "Van Gieson's stain (histology)"}, {"Vladimir Veksler", "revolving door (1888)"}, {"John Venn", "synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron"}, {"Auguste Victor Louis Verneuil", "Venn diagram (1881)"}, {"Pierre Vernier", "Verneuil process (crystal growth)"}, {"Lucien Vidi", "Vernier scale (1631)"}, {"Edgar Villchur", "Barograph"}, {"Artturi Ilmari Virtanen", "a.o. Acoustic suspension (loudspeaker)"}, {"Alessandro Volta", "a.o. AIV fodder"}, {"Bernard Vonnegut", "battery, see also Voltaic pile"}, {"Ivan Vučetić", "a.o. Cloud seeding by silver iodide"}, {"Paul Walden", "Method of fingerprint classification"}, {"Jimmy Wales", "Walden inversion, Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)"}, {"Madam C.J. Walker", "Wikipedia"}, {"Barnes Wallis", "beauty and hair products for African American women"}, {"Ruth Graves Wakefield", "bouncing bomb"}, {"Frederick Walton", "chocolate chip cookie"}, {"Aldred Scott Warthin", "Linoleum"}, {"Robert Watson-Watt", "Warthin–Starry stain (histology)"}, {"James Watt", "microwave radar"}, {"Thomas Wedgwood", "improved Steam engine"}, {"Carl Auer von Welsbach", "first (not permanent) photograph"}, {"Jonas Wenström", "Gas mantle, ferrocerium"}, {"George Westinghouse", "three-phase electrical power"}, {"Charles Wheatstone", "Air brake (rail)"}, {"Richard T. Whitcomb", "a.o. concertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipher, pseudoscope, dynamo"}, {"Eli Whitney", "Supercritical airfoil, Winglet"}, {"Frank Whittle", "the cotton gin"}, {"Otto Wichterle", "co-inventor of the jet engine"}, {"Norman Wilkinson", "soft contact lens"}, {"Charles Thomson Rees Wilson", "Dazzle camouflage"}, {"Paul Winchell", "Cloud chamber"}, {"Sergei Winogradsky", "the artificial heart"}, {"Niklaus Wirth", "Winogradsky column for culturing microorganisms"}, {"A. Baldwin Wood", "Pascal (programming language)"}, {"Norman Joseph Woodland", "high volume pump"}, {"Granville Woods", "Barcode"}, {"James Homer Wright", "the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph"}, {"Wright brothers", "Wright's stain (histology)"}, {"Arthur Wynne", "USA"}, {"Yi Xing", "creator of crossword puzzle"}, {"Pavel Yablochkov", "astronomical clock"}, {"Hidetsugu Yagi", "Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)"}, {"Alexander Yakovlev", "Yagi-Uda antenna"}, {"Linus Yale Jr.", "Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)"}, {"Linus Yale Sr.", "cylinder lock"}, {"Shunpei Yamazaki", "pin tumbler lock"}, {"Gazi Yasargil", "patents in a.o. computer science and solid-state physics, see List of prolific inventors"}, {"Ryōichi Yazu", "Microneurosurgery"}, {"Gunpei Yokoi", "Yazu Arithmometer"}, {"Arthur M. Young", "Game Boy"}, {"Vladimir Yourkevitch", "the Bell Helicopter"}, {"Tu Youyou", "ship hull design"}, {"Sergei Yudin", "Artemisinin"}, {"Muhammad Yunus", "cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations"}, {"Abu Yusuf Yaqub", "microcredit, microfinance"}, {"Abraham Albert Yuzpe", "siege cannon"}, {"Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi", "Yuzpe regimen (= form of Emergency contraception)"}, {"Frank Zamboni", "catgut surgical suture, various surgical instruments and dental devices"}, {"Giuseppe Zamboni", "Ice resurfacer"}, {"Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof", "Zamboni pile (early battery)"}, {"Walter Zapp", "Esperanto"}, {"Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī", "Minox (subminiature camera)"}, {"Yevgeny Zavoisky", "almanac, equatorium, universal astrolabe"}, {"Nikolay Zelinsky", "EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopy"}, {"Ferdinand von Zeppelin", "the first effective filtering coal gas mask in the world"}, {"Frits Zernike", "Zeppelin"}, {"Tang Zhongming", "Phase contrast microscope"}, {"Jian Zhou", "internal combustion engine powered by charcoal"}, {"Nikolai Zhukovsky", "HPV vaccine against cervical cancer"}, {"Karl Ziegler", "an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank"}, {"Franz Ziehl", "Ziegler–Natta catalyst"}, {"Konrad Zuse", "Ziehl–Neelsen stain (histology)"}, {"Vasily Zvyozdochkin", "invented the first programmable general-purpose computer (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4)"}, {"Vladimir Zworykin", "matryoshka doll (together with Sergey Malyutin)"} }; string invention_keywords[] = {"sewing machine", "electric motor", "thermometer", " radio ", "dishwasher", "C++"}; string invention; for(string invention_keyword : invention_keywords) { for(auto m : inventor_inventions) { invention = m.second; if(invention.find(invention_keyword) != string::npos) { cout << m.first << ": " << m.second << endl; } } } /* Beulah Louise Henry: bobbin-free sewing machine, vacuum ice cream freezer Elias Howe: sewing machine Isaac Singer: sewing machine Michael Faraday: electric transformer, electric motor Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit: Fahrenheit temperature scale, Mercury-in-glass thermometer Alexander Popov: radio pioneer, created a radio receiver that worked as a lightning detector Archibald Low: Pioneer of radio guidance systems Josephine Cochrane: dishwasher Bjarne Stroustrup: C++ (programming language) */ return 0; }